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In the field of metrology, significant advancements have been made in laser-based techniques to overcome limitations in both spatial and temporal resolution. These efforts have opened up possibilities to explore previously unattainable phenomena. Furthermore, extensive attention has been given to the intriguing dynamics of laser sources themselves, driving the progress of Photonics-based research from both fundamental and applied physics perspectives. This thesis aligns perfectly with this dynamic landscape as it encompasses both fundamental and applied research. It focuses on the development of pulsed light sources and the in-depth study of their dynamics. Additionally, it investigates the resulting dynamics when these light sources interact with matter, necessitating the creation of cutting-edge diagnostic tools with record-high resolutions for ultrafast science.

The thesis delves into the design and implementation of fiber optical parametric chirped pulse oscillators. These devices efficiently generate high-energy, tunable, and synchronized picosecond pulses within specific spectral regions through energy conversion. Moreover, it explores the utilization of the dispersive Fourier transform technique to monitor the process of energy transfer between wavelengths, thereby revealing the intricate dynamics of the system. Lastly, the thesis presents the development of an innovative ultrafast imaging technique for studying the dynamics of various laser-matter interaction processes, including the optical Kerr effect, laser ablation, and laser-induced air breakdown.

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